Drug Toxicity and Antidote Quiz

Drug Antidotes

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Question 1

A teenage girl is brought into the emergency room by her parents. They are worried that she has ingested too much acetaminophen. What is the mechanism of the drug that treats her overdose?

A
Acidifies the urine
B
Raises the pH of the urine
C
N-acetylcysteine
D
Replenishes glutathione
Question 1 Explanation: 
The question is asking for the mechanism of the antidote. While N-acetylcysteine is the antidote for acetaminophen toxicity it does not answer the question. The correct answer is that N-acetylcysteine works by replenishing glutatione.
Question 2

What is the mechanism of the drug used to treat a patient that has taken toxic levels of TCAs?

A
Plasma alkalinization
B
Increase urine bicarb and lower the plasma pH
C
Urine alkalinization
D
Plasma acidification
Question 2 Explanation: 
Use NaHCO3 to treat TCA toxicity. In the case of TCA toxicity the sodium bicarb is used to alkalinize the plasma.
Question 3

Which is used to treat benzodiazepine toxicity?

A
Flumazenil
B
Fluoxetine
C
Ferritin
D
Fomepizole
Question 3 Explanation: 
Benzo treatment = Flumazenil
Question 4

In which of the following situations would you consider using protamine sulfate?

A
A patient is starting warfarin treatment and needs something to keep their blood from clotting for the first week.
B
A patient that has been was just given too much heparin.
C
A patient that has been on heparin and now it does not seem to work.
D
A patient that has taken too much warfarin.
Question 4 Explanation: 
Protamine is to be given as an antidote for patients experiencing heparin toxicity. Heparin is given to patients starting warfarin treatment. And vitamin K and fresh frozen plasma are used to treat patients with warfarin toxicity.
Question 5

Carbon monoxide poisoning treatment:

A
Low pressure chamber
B
Nitrites
C
100% Oxygen
D
Nitrogen and Oxygen by facemask
Question 5 Explanation: 
A simple question with a simple answer. Carbon monoxide poisoning? Give 100% O2.
Question 6

What is the treatment for warfarin overdose?

A
Vitamin K and Fresh Frozen Plasma
B
Heparin
C
Protamine
D
Methylene blue and Vitamin C
Question 6 Explanation: 
Treat warfarin with vitamin K and FFP. Protamine is the treatment for heparin toxicity. Heparin is used at the beginning of warfarin treatment while waiting for the warfarin to take full effect. Methylene blue and vitamin C to treat Methemoglobinemia.
Question 7

First line treatment for methanol overdose is _____________, and second line treatment is ________________.

A
Fomepizole; 100% O2
B
Ethanol; Fomepizole
C
Fomepizole; Ethanol
D
Ethanol; 100% O2
Question 7 Explanation: 
First line treatment for methanol toxicity is Fomepizole, but if that is not available then ethanol is a good back up.
Question 8

What is the treatment for acute inorganic mercury poisoning?

A
Deferoxamine
B
Penicillamine
C
Dimercaparol
D
Nitrite
Question 8 Explanation: 
The antidote for mercury poisoning is either Dimercaprol (BAL) or succimer.
Question 9

What is the mechanism of the antidote for salicylate toxicity?

A
Acidify the plasma
B
Balances the serum levels of potassium and magnesium
C
Acidify the urine
D
Alkalinize the urine
Question 9 Explanation: 
The treatment for salicylic acid toxicity is NaHCO3 (sodium bicarb) which will alkalinize the patients urine which will augment the body's ability to excrete the salicylic acid.
Question 10

Which of the following is not a recommended to use in the treatment of a patient experiencing beta blocker toxicity?

A
Calcium
B
Atropine
C
Nitrites
D
Glucagon
Question 10 Explanation: 
Glucagon, Calcium, and Atropine can all be helpful in treating a patient with beta blocker toxicity. Nitrites are more useful in Cyanide poisoning.
Question 11

What drug can be used to treat toxicity with lead, mercury, arsenic, and gold?

A
Iron
B
Fomepizole
C
Flumazenil
D
Dimercaprol
Question 11 Explanation: 
Dimercaprol and succimer can both be used to treat patients with lead, mercury, arsenic, and gold toxicities. Fomepizole is used in the treatment of Methanol and Ethylene glycol toxicity, and Flumazenil is used in the treatment of Benzodiazepine toxicity.
Question 12

Which would be the most likely toxin treated with deferoxamine?

A
Iron
B
Arsenic
C
Lead
D
Gold
Question 12 Explanation: 
Remember the elemental symbol for iron is "Fe" and the treatment for iron is de"Fe"roxamine.
Question 13

What is the antidote for toxic levels of opioids?

A
Aminocaproic acid
B
Beta-Blockers
C
Naltrexone
D
Glucagon
Question 13 Explanation: 
In the case of opioid overdose consider using naltrexone or naloxone.
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