Nephritic and Nephrotic Syndromes Quiz

Nephritic and Nephrotic Syndromes Quiz

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Question 1

Which nephrotic syndrome is associated with HIV?

A
Minimal Change Disease
B
Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis
C
Amyloidosis
D
IgA Nephropathy
Question 1 Explanation: 
Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis is the most common glomerular disease in patients with HIV.
Question 2

Which of the following characteristics is used to define a nephritic syndrome?

A
Red Blood Cell casts in urine with a decreased BUN and creatinine
B
Fatty casts in urine
C
Polyuria and hypotension
D
Protein in the urine (under 3.5 grams per day)
Question 2 Explanation: 
One of the defining features used to determine the difference between nephritic and nephrotic syndromes is the amount of protein in the urine. Nephritic syndromes have under 3.5 g/day. Nephrotic syndromes have over 3.5 g/day. Fatty casts are a feature of nephrotic syndromes.
Question 3

What is a defining feature of minimal change disease?

A
Blunting of the villi on light microscopy
B
Slight visible changes of the glomeruli on light microscoty
C
Effacement of the foot processes on electron mycroscopy
D
Segmental sclerosis on light microscopy
Question 3 Explanation: 
Minimal change disease shows normal glomeruli on LM and effacement of the foot processes on EM. Minimal change is most often seen in children.
Question 4

Which syndrome shoes a spike and dome appearance on electron microscopy?

A
Membranous glomerulonephritis
B
Accute post streptococcal GN
C
Berger's disease (IgA nephropathy)
D
Alport syndrome
E
Goodpasture syndrome
Question 4 Explanation: 
Membranous glomerulonephritis has a spike and dome appearance on EM. It is also the most common cause of adult nephrotic syndrome.
Question 5

A woman with a history significant for lupus is found to have 2.3 grams of protein in her urine each day. In the investigation you find wire looping of the capillaries on light microscopy. Which of the following tops your differential?

A
IgA nephropathy
B
Rapidly progressive Glomerulonephritis
C
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
D
Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis
Question 5 Explanation: 
Wire looping should be a term that you associate with Diffuse Proliferative Glomerulonephitis.
Question 6

A patient complains of excessively frothy urine when he uses the toilet in the morning. Thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions are seen on light microscopy.

What has been the major cause of this patients current condition?

A
Poor control of glucose levels
B
SLE
C
Antibodies to the glomerular and alveolar basement membranes
D
Recent streptococcal infection
Question 6 Explanation: 
Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions are a defining feature of diabetic glomerulonephropathy.
Question 7

Which of the following is NOT a part of the body affected in Alport syndrome?

A
Ears
B
Eyes
C
Liver
D
Kidneys
Question 7 Explanation: 
Alport syndrome is a type IV collagen defect that leads to eyesight changes, deafness, and nephrotic syndrome.
Question 8

What type of hypersensitivity is Goodpasture syndrome?

A
Type II
B
Type I
C
Type III
D
Type IV
Question 8 Explanation: 
Goodpasture syndrome is a type II hypersensitivity with antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane.
Question 9

Which nephrotic syndrome has a "tram-track" appearance on light microscopy?

A
Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis
B
Diabetic glomerulonephritis
C
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
D
RGPN
E
Berger's disease
Question 9 Explanation: 
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis has a "tram-track" appearance on LM. Diabetic glomerulonephritis is the only other answer that is a nephrotic syndrome, the rest are nephritic syndromes.
Question 10

This image shows apple-green birefringence with Congo-red stain on light microscopy.

What nephrotic disease would you suspect?

A
Amyloidosis
B
Wegener's granulomatosis
C
Minimal change disease
D
Diabetic glomerulonephropathy
Question 10 Explanation: 
Amyloidosis is associated with many chronic conditions, and is often described as "apple-green birefringence" on a Congo-red stain on LM.
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