Nephritic and Nephrotic Syndromes Quiz

Nephritic and Nephrotic Syndromes Quiz

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Question 1

Which of the following is NOT a part of the body affected in Alport syndrome?

A
Ears
B
Eyes
C
Liver
D
Kidneys
Question 1 Explanation: 
Alport syndrome is a type IV collagen defect that leads to eyesight changes, deafness, and nephrotic syndrome.
Question 2

A woman with a history significant for lupus is found to have 2.3 grams of protein in her urine each day. In the investigation you find wire looping of the capillaries on light microscopy. Which of the following tops your differential?

A
Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis
B
IgA nephropathy
C
Rapidly progressive Glomerulonephritis
D
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
Question 2 Explanation: 
Wire looping should be a term that you associate with Diffuse Proliferative Glomerulonephitis.
Question 3

What is a defining feature of minimal change disease?

A
Blunting of the villi on light microscopy
B
Segmental sclerosis on light microscopy
C
Effacement of the foot processes on electron mycroscopy
D
Slight visible changes of the glomeruli on light microscoty
Question 3 Explanation: 
Minimal change disease shows normal glomeruli on LM and effacement of the foot processes on EM. Minimal change is most often seen in children.
Question 4

A patient complains of excessively frothy urine when he uses the toilet in the morning. Thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions are seen on light microscopy.

What has been the major cause of this patients current condition?

A
SLE
B
Poor control of glucose levels
C
Antibodies to the glomerular and alveolar basement membranes
D
Recent streptococcal infection
Question 4 Explanation: 
Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions are a defining feature of diabetic glomerulonephropathy.
Question 5

Which syndrome shoes a spike and dome appearance on electron microscopy?

A
Alport syndrome
B
Berger's disease (IgA nephropathy)
C
Membranous glomerulonephritis
D
Goodpasture syndrome
E
Accute post streptococcal GN
Question 5 Explanation: 
Membranous glomerulonephritis has a spike and dome appearance on EM. It is also the most common cause of adult nephrotic syndrome.
Question 6

Which of the following characteristics is used to define a nephritic syndrome?

A
Fatty casts in urine
B
Protein in the urine (under 3.5 grams per day)
C
Polyuria and hypotension
D
Red Blood Cell casts in urine with a decreased BUN and creatinine
Question 6 Explanation: 
One of the defining features used to determine the difference between nephritic and nephrotic syndromes is the amount of protein in the urine. Nephritic syndromes have under 3.5 g/day. Nephrotic syndromes have over 3.5 g/day. Fatty casts are a feature of nephrotic syndromes.
Question 7

Which nephrotic syndrome has a "tram-track" appearance on light microscopy?

A
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
B
Berger's disease
C
RGPN
D
Diabetic glomerulonephritis
E
Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis
Question 7 Explanation: 
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis has a "tram-track" appearance on LM. Diabetic glomerulonephritis is the only other answer that is a nephrotic syndrome, the rest are nephritic syndromes.
Question 8

Which nephrotic syndrome is associated with HIV?

A
Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis
B
Minimal Change Disease
C
IgA Nephropathy
D
Amyloidosis
Question 8 Explanation: 
Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis is the most common glomerular disease in patients with HIV.
Question 9

This image shows apple-green birefringence with Congo-red stain on light microscopy.

What nephrotic disease would you suspect?

A
Diabetic glomerulonephropathy
B
Amyloidosis
C
Minimal change disease
D
Wegener's granulomatosis
Question 9 Explanation: 
Amyloidosis is associated with many chronic conditions, and is often described as "apple-green birefringence" on a Congo-red stain on LM.
Question 10

What type of hypersensitivity is Goodpasture syndrome?

A
Type III
B
Type IV
C
Type I
D
Type II
Question 10 Explanation: 
Goodpasture syndrome is a type II hypersensitivity with antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane.
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